Species-Specific Considerations

In general, smaller animals have higher metabolic rates and frequently require higher doses of anesthetics and analgesics at more frequent intervals to achieve the desired effect.

Species, strain and age differences often overshadow this general principle however. It is always best to start with a drug regimen developed in the species, age and strain with which the Principal Investigator is working, rather than extrapolate from one species or strain to another.


Formulary for Mice

Formulary for Rats

Mice and Rats 


Examples of potentially painful procedures

Drug selection for alleviating pain in rodents

*Severe pain may be better alleviated by the combination of NSAID and opioid drugs. This multimodal approach allows for action at different points on the pain pathways, and will allow for a lower dosage of both drugs to be given.

For purposes of administering a drug via the drinking water

*Animals that have been subjected to a painful procedure/surgery will not drink the “normal” amount of water for a minimum of 24 hours post-surgery/post-procedure. It is estimated that normal water consumption will be reduced by at least 50%.

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